Polycystic ovarian disease is one of the leading causes of female infertility, while in some cases the symptoms of the disease can hardly manifest themselves, in others – cause a woman to be seriously concerned. In the mechanism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hormonal imbalance appears at the forefront, manifested by dysfunction of several endocrine organs – the ovaries, pancreas, adrenal cortex, pituitary and endocrine center – the hypothalamus.
PCOS affects young women and usually occurs for the first time in adolescence – immediately after the first menstruation. The urgency of the problem of polycystic ovaries is associated with infertility and the development of other pathological conditions, including obesity and damage to the cardiovascular system.
Causes of polycystic ovary
The cause of PCOS remains unknown. It is assumed that hereditary predisposition and anomalies of the course of pregnancy may be important in the development of the disease. The provoking factors are:
severe viral respiratory diseases (influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections);
hormonal diseases affecting the pituitary, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroid gland;
inflammatory diseases of the ovaries, tubes, uterus;
Symptoms of polycystic ovary
Manifestations of the disease are associated with hormonal imbalance in the body of a woman. The leading role played by the increase in insulin – true and false. In the first case, the pancreas produces an increased amount of this hormone, in the second – the insulin level is within the normal range, but ovarian tissue becomes more sensitive to it. In both cases, the ovary reacts in the same way: it increases the secretion of androgens and estrogens. This imbalance leads to inhibition of ovulation and other pathological symptoms.
Disruption of the menstrual cycle: oligomenorrhea (rare, with a frequency of 1 every 3-5 months, menstruation) or amenorrhea (complete absence of menstruation). Menstruation is often scanty; sometimes, on the contrary, very abundant.
Infertility due to anovulatory menstrual cycle (lack of release of a mature egg).
Hirsutism – increased male hairiness: appearance of hair on the abdomen, chest, nipples. In some cases, masculinization can occur – baldness on the crown or in the temporal areas, an increase in the clitoris.
Male type obesity: fat is deposited mainly in the abdomen, forming a “round” figure.
Stretch bands – “stretch marks” on the stomach, thighs.
Pigment spots on the skin.
Tendency to severe acne, seborrhea, oily skin. A high level of male sex hormones leads to a change in the functioning of the skin: it becomes less elastic, the activity of the sebaceous glands increases, and deep wrinkles appear.
Milk discharge from the nipples: due to hyperprolactinemia – a high level of prolactin responsible for lactation.
Mental disorders: depression of varying degrees, mood swings, irritability, apathy.
Abdominal pain: during menses and between cycles.
The examination revealed a change in the ovaries with an increase in their size, “graininess” of the surface. An ultrasound often reveals a thickening of the endometrium. The study of glucose tolerance can reveal the pathology of carbohydrate metabolism caused by hyperinsulinemia (increased insulin levels). To make a diagnosis, it is necessary to analyze the hormonal status with the determination of the level of androgens, progesterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating (FSH) hormones. To identify metabolic disorders prescribed study the level of fat.
Danger of polycystic ovary
Polycystic ovarian disease is a complex disease involving many organs and systems in the pathological process. In the absence of adequate treatment, complications can be dangerous not only for the reproductive function of a woman, but also for her general health.
Infertility: in most cases is reversible. Proper treatment usually gives good results.
In pregnancy, there is a high risk of miscarriage and premature birth. With adequate medical support, a woman has all the chances to safely endure a pregnancy.
Obesity with an increased risk of heart disease and atherosclerosis.
Tendency to thrombotic diseases and complications.
Treatment of polycystic ovary
Treatment of PCOS is a long, complex process that requires regularity and perseverance. Treatment prescribed by a gynecologist, based on the clinical picture and features of the disease.
Normalization of weight: is a necessary step in
obesity. Even a small weight loss is positive. Diet prescribed in conjunction with physical activity. In order to choose a diet, you may need to consult a nutritionist.