Disease prevention is one of the most important tasks of modern health care, it is incorporated in a number of government programs and the OMS system. In addition, even the usual hygienic skills and proper lifestyle can have a preventive effect.
A person from an early age may be subject to various diseases. They affect life expectancy and its quality, reduce the ability to work and even cause disability and social helplessness. Some diseases are characterized by high mortality, others increase the risk of the birth of offspring with various deviations, still others make a sick person dangerous to others and can lead to epidemics. In many cases, preventive measures can prevent the development of diseases or make their prognosis more favorable.
What is prevention?
Disease prevention is a complex of medical and non-medical measures of a preventive health character. Its main tasks are:
1. prevention of the appearance of various pathological conditions;
2. minimizing the effects of various risk factors;
3. reducing the risk of developing complications of emerging diseases;
4. reducing the rate of progression of the disease;
5. prevention of chronization of pathological processes and the development of secondary diseases;
6. reducing the severity of the negative consequences of illness;
7. general health promotion.
Competent and comprehensive prevention as a whole can reduce the incidence and risk of various epidemics, shorten the duration of emerging diseases and quickly restore work capacity.
Prevention is not just some kind of special medical treatment prescribed by a doctor. Daily hygiene, a healthy lifestyle, proper organization of the workplace and compliance with certain rules during periods of epidemics also help prevent the development of many diseases. Even caring for the environment and refers to preventive measures.
In addition to individual prevention of diseases, preventive and health measures can be carried out at the state level, regions, municipalities. Some of them are provided by the employer or the system of medical institutions.
What happens prevention
According to the definitions of WHO, there are several types of prevention. Primary is a variety of measures aimed at eliminating risk factors for the entire population and early detection of diseases in certain groups. It includes various preventive examinations, vaccinations, hygienic education and sanitary-educational work. It also includes the improvement of working conditions in industry and enterprises, the improvement of the overall environmental situation and the microclimate of dwellings.
Secondary disease prevention is necessary for the detection and treatment of diseases in the early stages with risk factors. At the same time, targeted preventive examinations, clinical examination, preventive treatment and rehabilitation of certain social or labor groups are used. Also, with secondary prevention, they conduct training and sanitary-hygienic education of patients, their relatives and people at risk. For this purpose, special informational-educational programs (schools) are created, targeted at people with certain diseases. It can be diabetes, dementia (dementia), hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis and many other pathologies with potentially severe course.
Tertiary prophylaxis is carried out after confirmation of the main diagnosis. It improves the prognosis and facilitates the course of the disease. The complex of measures carried out at the same time is aimed at the maximum possible restoration of working capacity and preservation of the social and everyday activity of a person. Medical and psychological adaptation of the sick person to his changed needs and possibilities is also necessary.
In general, all types of disease prevention can still be divided into personal, medical and public events. It is important to adhere to an integrated approach, paying particular attention to maintaining one’s health and strengthening the body’s defenses.